As on-line shoppers we often depend on the reviews, comments, and purchases by other shoppers to help guide our decision-making. We see how many “likes” a product has received, and if it performed according to the promised description. We might even like to score a great deal on a hot trend that others are snapping up. What does Suzy from San Francisco know that I don’t know?
A common message on shopping sites is that “four other people are looking at this offer right now” or “Suzy from San Francisco just saved $202 on her order!” or “You just missed this great deal!” As it turns out, there often is no “Suzy from San Francisco” online scoping out the same deal as you. The messages are often fake; these are an example of something called “dark patterns,” which are online tactics that manipulate users into doing things that might not otherwise do.
These dark patterns directly benefit the company, not the consumer, and can be regarded by many people as fraud. (This happened to me recently when updating a standard software program – I kept clicking “next” without realizing that it was modifying my computer preferences!)
Lest we regard ourselves as lazy, consider that people do not read every word on every page all the time. We pick up on patterns and make assumptions. A “dark pattern” makes it difficult for the user to do something that does not benefit the company (such as cancelling an account). Companies can use color and design to mislead or trick users. A recent study from Princeton University used software to scan more than 10,000 sites. They found that more than 1,200 of the sites used tactics identified as “dark patterns.”
Here are some examples of dark patterns:
- Sneak into basket – something is added to your basket because you didn’t opt-out
- Roach motel – trying to get out of something such as a subscription service
- Price comparison prevention – that makes it hard to compare the price of an item with another item
- Disguised ads – that appear as content or navigation in order to gain clicks
Consumers need transparency from companies, not tricks to make us buy more.
Which dark pattern have you experienced?
Group Activities and Discussion Questions:
- Poll students. Who checks review prior to buying something online?
- View video at Dark Patterns: https://www.darkpatterns.org/
- What have been the students’ experiences with dark patterns?
- Discuss the ethical considerations of marketing.
- Are dark patterns legal? Are dark patterns ethical?
- Divide students into teams. Have each team select an e-commerce site and review how to set up an account, cancel an account, and more.
- How many of the dark patterns can they find?
Source: Valentino-DeVries, J. (24 June 2019). How e-commerce sites manipulate you into buying things you may not want. New York Times.